Before the development of the newspaper - there were two major kinds of news publication existed simultaneously - the handwritten news sheet and the single item news publications. The early publication of the newspaper came about in 1601. England and France have worked together and published the first long news accounts called "relations". Source: Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
The publication of newspapers have become a lucrative business for those who can afford to put up a publishing house and who can afford to hire newspaper journalists to work as newspaper editors, photographers and newspaper reporters.
Nowadays, there are thousands of publishing houses who are hungry and thirsty for journalists to do the jobs of reporting, writing, editing and photographing the news that is published by newspapers. In a typical newspaper, the staff are basically two types of journalists:
The duties of Newspaper Photographer: Newspaper photographer must not only has the skills and training of the reporter. He must also know how to use a camera correctly and develop and print photographs. Like reporter, news photographer covers events as fires, parades and accidents. He also photographs individuals for interview stories and coverage of speeches. Like reporter, news photographer may either specialize in one type of photography, such as color or sport, or take on any assignment.
The duties of Newspaper Reporter: In my previously published article entitled: News reporter Important Element That Makes News, I had described a short account regarding the jobs of newspaper reporter. In addition to them, a newspaper reporter does not only cover events such as plane crashes, murders or fires. Interviews with individuals who shape events or explanations of a news event are other example of the type of news writing a reporter may do. And whatever the type of news a reporter is covering, his story must answer the 5 "W's":
There are two categories of newspaper reporters: (1) General assignment reporters who are expected to cover any type of news story and (2) Beat reporters who cover one type of story
A general assignment reporter may cover a series of court cases at the court house one day and a series of fires or traffic accidents the next day. General assignment is where most new reporter will start his career at a newspaper. This gives the novice feel for the variety of news events that make up the newspaper.
Beat reporter will cover the same news source day in and day out: city hall, local legislature, or the local sports team are some examples. Beat reporter is expected to keep his editor apprised of all important events involving his beat.
Newspaper Editors are classified according to newspaper office activities. There is Copy Editor, City Editor, News Editor, Photo Editor and the Managing Editor.
The jobs of Copy Editor: The copy editor is the first person to see the news story after it is submitted by the reporter. He/She checks the story to ensure that (1) there are no factual errors, (2) the grammar and spelling are correct, (3) the writing is easy to follow and readable and (4) the story is fair.
The copy editor guards against inaccuracies by checking every fact and name mentioned in the story - virtually every word in a news story. He/she helps to make news writing readable by breaking up long sentences. He helps ensure the fairness of news stories by seeing to it that each side in a controversy gets to air its side of the story. He also improve the style of news stories by toning them down or by cutting strong adjectives and replacing strong verbs with milder one.
The jobs of City Editor: He is in charge of the reporter who covers local news. He assigns reporter to beats and stories occurring within the city in which the paper is published. He also determines on which page and where on the page each story will be printed and the size of each headline.
The jobs of News Editor: He is in charge of all news outside the city editor's area of responsibility. On a typical newspaper this would include local, national and international news. He is also responsible for sifting through the news that comes to the paper from agencies such as Reuters, Associated Press and so on. He also determines how all the news pages of the newspaper will be laid out and decides what will appear on the first page of the paper.
The jobs of Photo Editor: He is responsible for the staff of photographers at a newspaper. He assigns photographers to cover stories and decides which pictures will be printed.
The jobs of Managing Editor: He is at the top of the ladder in most newspaper offices. The managing editor's basic role is to provide direction to the newspaper by selecting what news will be covered and what news is most important.
The working conditions at a newspaper office can be as varied as the city, town or province in which the paper is located. Much depends on the size of the newspaper, its management and budget, and whether employees are unionized or not. In general, a journalist's working day can be relatively long, ranging from 48 to 60 hours per week. Also, a journalist's working day is not the conventional 9 to 5, since news events can occur at any time of day or night.
Sources of facts and other info: My old notes and clippings when I took up Creative Writing course by mail 1998-1999 with the Writers Bureau, Manchester, London and Journalism and Short Story Writing with the ICS (International Correspondence School) Pennsylvania, USA also by mail 2000-2001.
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